This page explains my policy and the issues involved with missing tests, both when a penalty of 20% will apply to the grade (B1 below), and when the penalty will NOT apply (B2 below). 
A.  WHEN TO MAKEUP THE TEST:   No matter whatever the ruling about a penalty or not a penalty, you still have to take the test, and as soon as possible so you don't fall behind in the next month's work and test preparation.  Click on this link (anywhere in this sentence) to go to the makeup/retake testing times.  
  1. If you missed the test because you fell behind during the month, or got busy, or had trouble with the math--but did not do the math early enough in the month to be able to come in often for math help--then there is a 20% penalty.  I know that seems harsh, but it is absolutely vital to keep up with the schedule.  If someone falls a little behind, then they get more behind, and more behind, until it's almost impossible to pass the course.  It is the parents' responsibility (for middle schoolers) and students' responsibility (high schoolers) to make sure to get done with the work, and prepare for the test, in time.  STILL NEED TO TAKE THE TEST, because not taking it would be a zero...the 20% penalty means the highest score a student can get is B-, but that's still better than an F. 

  2. There really are unavoidable situations where it's not someone's fault for being late taking a test, such as really sick in bed, or a parent too sick to drive a student to school for a test, or a relative is in the hospital about to have surgery, or a grandparent just got hurt and parent needs to go there, no time to bring a student for testing...I do understand such things happen, and IF A PARENT CONTACTS ME AS SOON AS POSSIBLE TO EXPLAIN THE SITUATION (via email), then there will not be a penalty for taking the test late.  Notice that main point: a parent, not a student, must contact me via email. 

C.  FALLING BEHIND--DANGER!  A student who misses a test--no matter how legitimate the reason---is now behind in the learning and work for the next month.  No, the next month's work will NOT be lessened or put off as well...the student who fell behind must work extra on school days and also on weekends in order to catch up for the next month.  In a perfect world, everyone would work at their own pace, so there would be no falling behind, but unfortunately the end of the semester is set in stone...I have to issue a final grade at that time.  Since I don't want students failing because of falling behind, I must recommend that the parent and student make a huge effort to catch up as soon as possible (and without falling behind in other courses...the same this is true with those courses).  This huge effort means extra work on school days, working on weekends, whatever it takes. 

D.  WOULD IT BE OK TO TAKE THE NEXT MONTH'S TEST LATE SINCE I HAD TO TAKE THIS TEST LATE?  No, even if it was a legitimate reason for missing this month's test, with no penalty, you are still fully responsible to work extra and on weekends in order to catch up for the next month's test on time.  If you miss that test because you were unable to catch up, the 20% penalty will apply to the test.